Сулайман-Тоо

Кароолчулары – Култаев Алымбек ажы, Мамыржанов Абдижажит…

Бул ыйык жер Ош шаарынын дал ортосунда жайгашкан, башкача айтканда, шаарды дал экиге бөлүп турат.

Ыйык жердин түрү ар кыл: бир чоң тоо, анын 5 чокусу, үңкүрлөр – Эшен үңкүр, Чеберлер үңкүрү, Тамчы тамаар, Бешик эне, Бабур үйү жана издер, дарактар, таштар, тоону тегерете курчаган көрүстөн. Чокуларынын бийиктиги болжол менен 10-15 метрди түзөт. Ал эми тоо өзү деңиз деңгээлинен300 метрбийиктикте. Бабур үйү реконструкцияланган. Тоонун төрт дарбазасы бар делчү. Бирок азыр анын экөө гана анык: чыгыш тарабындагы дарбаза “Суу дарбаза”, ал эми түштүк-чыгыш тарабындагы дарбаза “От дарбаза” деп аталат.

Байкап караган адамга тоонун чокулары ар кандай элестерди берет. Айрымдар ал “Аллах” деген жазууну (арабча) билдирээрин, кээ бирөөлөр жамбаштап жаткан аксакалды, же болбосо кызды билдирээрин айтышат. Ошондой эле тоонун үстүндө Сулайман пайгамбардын тагы болгондугу дагы айтылат. Сулайман-Тоонун аты ушуга байланыштуу делет (Ош мамлекеттик университетинин тарых факультетинин 1-курсунун студенти Азизилла уулу Исламбектин маалыматы).

Тоонун этегинде чусть маданиятына таандык Ош тургун жайынын орду бар. Тоонун түбүндө бейит бар. Бейиттин ортосунда симташ деген таш бар. Ал таш жөнүндө өзүнчө легенда айтылат. Бейиттин этегинде Симкаш көлү болгон, азыр көлдүн ордуна мечит курулган.

Ош шаарына салыштырмалуу Сулайман-Тоонун бийиктиги 300-350 метр. Тоонун беш чокусу бар. Алар өз-өзүнчө аталышка ээ:

1.Бар-Кух же Сулайман тоо. Бул чокуда Бабурдун үйү (Сулайман пайгамбардын ибадатканасы, сыйынуучу жери) жайгашкан.

2. Шор тоо. Бул ак туздуу чоку дегенди түшүндүрөт.

3. Рушан тоо. Бул “эң бийик, эң жарык” дегенди түшүндүрөт, же Оттуу тоо деп атасак болот.

4. Ээр тоо. Бул ээрге окшош тоо. Жайгашуусу боюнча чокунун түндүк капталы көрүнүшүнө жараша “каттама таш” деп аталат.

5. Кекилик угаар.

Тоодо жайгашкан үңкүрлөрдүн да аталыштары бар, алар өз-өзүнчө касиетке ээ. Биринчи чокуда эки үңкүр жайгашкан. Түндүк жагындагы бирөөсү барууга мүмкүн эмес жерде. Аталышы жок, себеби ал азыркы күнгө чейин изилдене элек, же элдердин баруусуна анчейин ыңгайсыз.

Экинчиси – Чака тамаар. Бул сөз тамчы дег                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       енди билдирет. Бул үңкүр барган адам үчүн сырдуу да, таңгалычтуу да болот. Ичине баш бакканда, сүрдүү. Ал жерге кирчү жол өтө кууш. Бир адам батчу жол менен сойлоп кирүүгө болот. Үңкүрдүн ичине шам жакканда, ичинен агылып турган, китеп сыяктуу таш көрүнөт. Аалымдар анда Курандын “Аятал курей” аятынан үзүндү бар экендигин айтышат. Үңкүрдүн төбөсүнөн тамчы таамп турат. Жазында боорун сыйпалаганда, кол нымдалышып калат. Ал төбөдөн түшкөн тамчынын касиети таасирдүү. Экинчи чокунун капталында “Тепе-Үңкүр (бийиктеги үңкүр) жайгашкан. Ушул эле чокуга Чилтен хан (Тешик-Таш деп да аталат) үңкүрү тийиштүү. Үңкүрдүн үч оозу бар. Бул үңкүргө көбүнчө эркектер зыярат кылып келет.

Үчүнчү чокуга тиешелүү үңкүр Эшен-Үңкүр деп аталат. Аны элдер ой жүгүртүүгө арналган үңкүр дешет.

Бешинчи чокудагы жайгашкан үңкүр Нуркыз (Үркыздар же нур кыздар) деген атка ээ. Айтууга караганда, ал үңкүрдү үр кыздардын жаны (руху) байырлайт делет. Бул жерге зыярат кылууга көбүнчө аял адамдар келет.

Мындан башка Сулайман-Тоодо өзүнчө аталышка, касиетке ээ болгон ыйык жайлар да бар. Мисалы, Бел-Таш (сыйгалак таш). Ал ташка жатып сыйгалануу бел жана бут ооруларга даба болот. Кол-Таш жана Бешик-Таш деген аталышка ээ болгон да жерлер бар (Ош мамлекеттик университетинин тарых факультетинин 1-курсунун студенти Туратбек кызы Айперинин маалыматы).

Сулайман пайгамбарыбыз дүйнөнүн көптөгөн жерлеринде тактысын орноткон. Сулайман-Тоосу ыйык жерлерге бай болгондуктан, ЮНЕСКО каттаган ыйык жерлердин тизмесине кирген. Оштун 3000 жылдыгын далилдеп туруучу бирден-бир эстелик – Ош тургун жайы.

Тоодогу музей археологиялык жана этнографиялык экспонат, эстеликтерге жык толгон. Тоонун бетиндеги бак-дарактарга жаш географтар практикалык сабактарды жүргүзүп турушат (Ош мамлекеттик университетинин тарых факультетинин 1-курсунун студенти Жеңишбек уулу Аскардын маалыматы).

Оозеки тарыхы:

 

Сулайман-Тоонун тарыхы жөнүндө ар түрдүү аңыздар бар. Бир маалымат боюнча Сулайман пайгамбар Палестинадан ушул жерге келип, так курган. Бул – диний көз караш. Дагы бир вариант боюнча бул тоо орто кылымда Өзгөн тараптан келген Сулайман деген касиеттүү кишинин урматына аталган. Палестинадан келген делген пайгамбар Сулайман алтымыш жашында дүйнөдөн кайткан.

Орто кылымда бул тоо Баракух деп аталган. “Бара”деген сөз кооз дегенди түшүндүрөт. Диний көз карашта “бар” – кудайдын 99 атынын бири, жоктон бар кылып, өлчөп берүү. Орусча “тазалоочу” дегенди билдирет.

Так деген эмне? Так – бул фарсча “такти” – падышанын отурган жери. Бул жерде Сулаймандын тактысы болгон. Афганистанда Сулайман-Тоо деген тоо бар. Аны Бабур өз эмгегинде жазып калтырган. Бул эч кандай өзбекчеден алынган эмес.

Сулайман-Тоонун канча дарбазасы бар?

Мурда Сулайман-Тоонун төрт дарбазасы болгон. Азыр экөө белгилүү: чыгыш тарапта – Суу дарбаза, түштүк тарапта – От дарбаза. Бири агып түшкөн суунун негизинде Суу дарбаза деп аталган. Тоодон түшкөн сууга жуунуп, сыйынышат. Ал жерге мончо курулган (9-10-кылым).

От дарбаза. Музей турган тоо – Равшан тоо, арабчадан нур тоо дегенди билдирет, кыргызча – жанар тоо. Ошол тоодон нур чыгып турган.

Ленинграддан келген орус окумуштуусу Заднепровский Орто Азиядан пайда болгонуна 3000 жыл болгон Оштон эски эч бир шаарды таба алган эмес. Ошондо ал Ошко 3000 жыл болгондугун далилдеген. Муну Сулайман-Тоонун батыш тарабында жайгашкан Ош тургун жайы далилдейт.

Чынында эле бул тоо ыйыкпы?

Дүйнө жүзү боюнча куруу иши Меккеден башталат. Сулайман тоо Меккеге окшоп курууга муктаж болгон эмес. Аны башынан эле ушундай кылып Кудай өзү жараткан. Андан нур чачырап турган. Ал таш болгону менен, аны сууга салса, чөккөн эмес. Адам ата менен Обо энебиз бейиштен түшкөндө Хиндистанга түшкөн делет. Караңгыда Сарандин тоосуна түшкөн. “Сар” – баш, “ан” – аймак, “дин” – такты, жалпысынан “сарандин” – баш жайгашкан такты дегенди билдирет. Адам ата түшкөн жер ушул тоо болот. Хиндистан деп айтып кое берет. “Макка” деген Куранда “бакка” деп да берилет. Мунун мааниси эч бир китепте айтылган эмес. Алымбек ажынын айтуусу боюнча, “баа” жана “ак” делгендеги “ак” кудайды билдирет. Ошондуктан айбандарды ак ит эмес, боз ит дейбиз. Айбандарга салыштырбоо керек.

Сулайман-Тоо Ала-Тоо эмес, Алла-Тоо делет. Бул 4 тоодон турат, Алла дегенди түшүндүрөт (түндүктөн түштүктү карай окулат).

13-кылымда жазылган маалыматка караганда, сыйгалак таштан үч жолу сыйгаланса, ал адамдын максаты ишке ашат. Бул тоонун тазалоочу касиети бар. “Тамчы тамаар”, “Бешик эне” дегендер жакында гана аталып калган. Үңкүрдүн ичинде “Алла” деген жазуу бар. Ал жерде 40 күн кудайга чын жүрөгү менен сыйынса, Меккеге барып зыярат кылып келгендей болот. Ошондуктан Сулайман-Тоодон Меккеге жол бар делет (Ош мамлекеттик университетинин тарых факультетинин 1-курсунун студенти Малик кызы Бегимайдын маалыматы).

Жыйынтыктап айтканда, Ош жерине мындан 6000 жыл мурда адам баласы отурукташса, тоого 3000 жыл мурда үй куруп, турак-жай салышып, шаарга айлантышкан. Бул тоого чыккан адамдар өзүнүн көз карашына жараша ыйык жерлердин таасирин алат (Ош мамлекеттик университетинин тарых факультетинин 1-курсунун студенти Жеңишбек уулу Аскардын маалыматы).

Сулайман-Тоо – мусулман өлкөлөрүнүн эң ыйык жана азиз урмат менен караган пирлүү шаары болуп эсептелинет. Ош шаарын көпчүлүк мусулман өлкөлөрү “Экинчи Мекке” деп аташат. Даут пайгамбардын баласы Сулайман пайгамбардын басып өткөн изи ушул мезгилге чейин сакталган. Күн чыгыш тушунда жайгашкан Ош мамлекеттик университетинин борбордук бөлүгүнүн башкы имаратынын артындагы … турган жерден баштап, ал ак өргөөнүн эки жагы аркылуу тоонун башына чыгууга болот. Жөө жол биригип барып, тарыхтагы белгилүү “Жаннап” арыкка жеткенде, тоого көтөрүлүүчү эшикке туш болобуз. Ал эшик мусулманчылыктын элесин берген төрт түркүктүү, үстү жабык мунарага окшоп кетет. Ал эшиктин оң жагында, башкача айтканда, түндүк бөлүгүндө Жаамы деп аталган мечит жайгашкан. Жаннат арыкты бойлоп сол жакты көздөй барсаңыз, тарыхый эстелик күмбөзү турат. Ал эми биринчи эшик аркылуу түз жогору көтөрүлсөңүз, атайын салынган жөө жол тоонун башында жайланышкан, тарыхта белгилүү изи калган Бабур салдырган өжүргө алып барат.

Сулайман пайгамбардын чындыгына анын кадам койгон жерлерин көрүп ынанасың, анткени ал жерде пайгамбарыбыздын намазга жыгылып, саждага башын койгондогу пешененин, эки алакандын, ошондой эле эки тизенин издери таштын бетинде бүгүнкү күндөгүдөй сакталып турат. Андан кийин өжүрөнүн арт жагында пайгамбардын өзүнүн асманды карап, чалкасынан жатып дем алып, белин түзөгөн жерин көрүүгө болот. Жөө жол менен жүрсөң, жолдо тоонун бетиндеги ар кандай үңкүрлөрдүн кереметтүүлүгүн байкайсың. Ошол жол менен баратканда тоонун түбүндө чоң чуңкурча жайгашкан, чуңкурчанын ичинде жомоктогу жарымташы (?) бар, анын ылдый жагында Симташ көлү болгон экен, бирок ал көл азыр соолуп калыптыр. Бул жол менен бара жатып оң жагыңды карасаң, тоонун бийик жеринде кыялай кеткен жол бар. Ал жолду эзелтен бери “Кыяматтын кыл көпүрөсү” деп айтышкан.

Андан кийин эки тоо маңдайлашып турушат. Ал тоолордун ортосунда эки табигый үңкүр бар. Ал үңкүрчөлөрдүн оң жагындагысын “Тамчы тамаар” деп коюшат. Ал эми сол жактагы үңкүрдү “Үркыз үңкүрү” деп коюшат. Ал жерден добуш салсаң, бир нече убакыттан кийин жооп иретинде үн чыгат. Ошол эле тоодо шарттуу түрдө төрт мойнокчо бар. Мойноктон туруп оң жагыңды карасаң, сени карап турган бийик таштагы келинчекти көрөсүң. Ошол себептен ал жер айрым учурда “Келинчек” деп аталып жүрөт. Келинчек-Таштын күн чыгыш жагында алыстан туруп карасаң, кадимки эле атка токулгандагыдай ташты көрөсүң. Ал ташты “Ээр таш” деп коюшат. Ал эми тоонун эң бийик жерин карасаң, кадимки чөгүп жаткан нар төөнүн өркөчүнүн элесин турган таштын сөлөкөтүнөн көрөсүң (Ош мамлекеттик университетинин тарых факультетинин 1-курсунун студенти Токурова Ыкыбалдын маалыматы).

Пайгамбарлар  жумушчуларын ар кандай жумшаган. Сулайман пайгамбарыбыз дөөлөрдү иштеткен. Тоодогу таштарды дөөлөр ташышкан. Сулайман пайгамбар өлгөндө дөөлөр жок болот. Пайгамбар өлүгүнүн башынан чапанын жыгачка илип коет. Бирок аны чычкандар казып, чукушуп, жыгачты түшүрүп жиберишет. Дөөлөр кийин билип, тактыдагы таштарды ар кайсы жакка ыргытышып, кетип калышкан. Ошондо тешик таштар, үңкүрлөр пайда болгон. Дөөлөр ыргытканда бири-бирине тийбей, ортолору ачык калган (Ысымы белгисиз, Өзбекстандык кыз).